JSC English First Paper | Unit: 4, Lesson: 4 | Check your reference | Using a dictionary (2)

A. Look at the dictionary page in Lesson 3 and answer the following questions. Then read the text below.
Do you use a dictionary?
Why and how often do you use a dictionary?
How can a dictionary help you?

A dictionary is a collection of words. It lists the words of a language and gives necessary information about them. It tells us about the

a) spelling
b) pronunciation
c) meaning
d) parts of speech etc. of words.
JSC English First Paper | Unit: 4, Lesson: 4 | Check your reference | Using a dictionary (2)

To make the meanings of words clear, example sentences are given in italics.
Example sentences show how words are used. It also gives the synonym/s and the antonym/s of a word.
We find words made by adding prefixes and suffixes to the root word. Parts of speech are also shown. A verb word is always given in the simple present tense. But the past form of a verb and the past participle are also shown.

B.  Again read the text above. Then ask and answer the following questions.
1. What information does a dictionary give us about a verb word?
2. Why are the example sentences given?
3. How are new words formed?
4. Why are the synonyms and the antonyms given?
5. What do we need a dictionary for?

C. Match the sentence parts in A with those in B.
A
B
A dictionary shows
in its simple present tense.
Prefixes and suffixes
about the words of a language.
A verb word is always given
help to make new words.
Meanings of words are given
how to pronounce a word.
A dictionary gives information
in a dictionary.
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JSC English First Paper | Unit: 4, Lesson: 3 | Check your reference | Using a dictionary (1)

A Look at the questions and the text and talk about them in groups.
1. Have you come across this type of text before?
2. Do you know what the text is about?
3. What do you know about a dictionary?
4. What do you find in a dictionary?
JSC English First Paper | Unit: 4, Lesson: 2 | Check your reference | Using a dictionary (1)
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JSC English First Paper | Unit: 4, Lesson: 2 | Check your reference | Using a table of contents


A Look at the questions and discuss in small groups.
1. Why do we need a table of contents to read a book?
2. What does a table of contents contain?

B. Now read the text and ask and answer the questions following it.
A table of contents is an important part of a book. It gives us information about what is inside a book. It tells us what each of the parts of the book is about. It also tells us how to go to the page where the part starts. A table of contents is usually written as 'contents' at the top of the page. The list of the parts is presented in the order that they appear in the book. The list contains the titles or the names of the parts. It sometimes mentions the sections as well as the subsection titles with the chapter/ unit/lesson titles.
It also includes the foreword or preface, book map, index, and the page numbers.

C. Ask and answer the questions.
1. Why do we need a table of contents in a book?
2. In what order are the parts of a table of contents presented, e.g. lesson numbers?

D. True or false? If false, give the correct information.
1. A table of contents gives us information only about the contents of a book.
2. A table of content contains some columns.
3. There is no link between the order of the list and that of the parts appearing in the book.
4. A chapter or unit title is sometimes followed by the section or subsection titles.
JSC English First Paper | Unit: 4, Lesson: 2 | Check your reference | Using a table of contents

E. Open your English textbook. Find the table of contents page. Look at the questions. Work in pairs and find out.
1. What is the title of the page?
2. What are the column heads?
3. Which page numbers contain the topics?
4. Which topic starts in page 44?
5. How many units are there?
6. How many page numbers are there in the book?

F. Now give information about the following.
Name/title of the table of contents page:
Names of column heads:
Numbers of units:
Total number of pages:
Title of the first unit:
Page number where the first unit starts:
Title of the last unit:
Position of the page numbers:
Position of the chapter titles:
Others, if any:

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JSC English First Paper | Unit: 4, Lesson: 1 | Check your reference | Introducing a table of contents

A. Look at the table and talk about it in groups.
B. Now answer the questions below.
1. Is the table familiar to you?
2. Where do you find it?
3. What is the table about?
4. What is this table called?

JSC English First Paper | Unit: 4, Lesson: 1 | Check your reference | Introducing a table of contents

C. Read the text and discuss in groups. Then try to find answers to the following questions.
You get a new book in hand. You see the title of the book and you want to read
it. But does the title only give you enough information about what the book is all about?
You also find the book divided into a few parts. Suppose you want to read a certain
part of the book. Certainly you will not like to waste time looking for it in the whole book.
1. How do you know which page to look for it? What do you do?
2. Do you think the table in A can help you? How?

D. Look at the table of contents in Section A. Then ask and answer the questions below.
1. What are the topics at page numbers vii, xiii, xv ?
2. If you want to read about the Hippopotamus, what unit and page numbers should you go to ?
3. What is the content at page number 65 ?
4. What page does the unit 2 start at and where does it end ?
5. Which topics appear between pages 26 -28?

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HSC English First Paper | Unit: 6, Lesson: 1 | Path to Higher Education | "An Eastern University" by Rabindranath Tagore


Introduction
Rabindranath Tagore was not only an outstanding poet but also a very committed educator. He has written extensively in both Bengali and English about his philosophy of education as well as his educational experiments and his desire to transform teaching and learning in Bengal. Here is an example of his thinking about education and desire to implement it in his institution.

Path to Higher Education | "An Eastern University" by Rabindranath Tagore

1. Warm up activities
Rabindranath Tagore set up a university with the expectation that it would be truly eastern and reflect the ideals of education that he cherished and found in the system of education once practiced in the Indian subcontinent. Find out the name and other details of the university from the net and talk to the class for 5 minutes about it.

□ Did Tagore attend any university in India or abroad? Discuss in a group.
□ What is your idea of the university? Write a page on the topic.
2. Read the following excerpts from Tagore's essay and answer the questions that follow:
Universities should never be made into mechanical organizations for collecting and distributing knowledge. Through them the people should offer their intellectual hospitality, their wealth of mind to others, and earn their proud right in return to receive gifts from the rest of the world. But in the whole length and breadth of India there is not a single University established in the modern time where a foreign or an Indian student can properly be acquainted with the best products of the Indian mind. For that we have to cross the sea, and knock at the doors of France and Germany. Educational institutions in our country are India's alms-bowl of knowledge; they lower our intellectual self-respect; they encourage us to make a foolish display of decorations composed of borrowed feathers ....
Man's intellect has a natural pride in its own aristocracy, which is the pride of its culture. Culture only acknowledges the excellence whose criticism is in its inner perfection, not in any external success.

When this pride succumbs to some compulsion of necessity or lure of material advantage, it brings humiliation to the intellectual man. Modern India, through her very education, has been made to suffer this humiliation. Once she herself provided her children with a culture which was the product of her own ages of thought and creation. But it has been thrust aside, and we are made to tread the mill of passing examinations, not for learning anything, but for notifying that we are qualified for employments under organisations conducted in English. Our educated community is not a cultured community, but a community of qualified candidates. Meanwhile the proportion of possible employments to the number of claimants has gradually been growing narrower, and the consequent disaffection has been widespread. At last the very authorities who are responsible for this are blaming their victims. Such is the perversity of human nature. It bears its worst grudge against those it has injured ....

In the Bengali language there is a modern maxim which can be translated, 'He who learns to read and write rides in a carriage and pair.' In English there is a similar proverb, 'Knowledge is power.1 It is an offer of a prospective bribe to the student, a promise of an ulterior reward which is more important than knowledge itself. . . .
Unfortunately, our very education has been successful in depriving us of our real initiative and our courage of thought. The training we get in our schools has the constant implication in it that it is not for us to produce but to borrow. And we are casting about to borrow our educational plans from European institutions. The trampled plants of Indian corn are dreaming of recouping their harvest from the neighbouring wheat fields. To change the figure, we forget that, for proficiency in walking, it is better to train the muscles of our own legs than to strut upon wooden ones of foreign make, although they clatter and cause more surprise at our skill in using them than if they were living and real.

But when we go to borrow help from a foreign neighbourhood we overlook the fact... that among the Europeans the living spirit of the University is widely spread in their society, their parliament, their literature, and the numerous activities of their corporate life. In all these functions they are in perpetual touch with the great personality of the land which is creative and heroic in its constant acts of self-expression and self-sacrifice. They have their thoughts published in their books as well as through the medium of living men who think those thoughts, and who criticise, compare and disseminate them. Some at least of the drawbacks of their academic education are redeemed by the living energy of the intellectual personality pervading their social organism. It is like the stagnant reservoir of water which finds its purification in the showers of rain to which it keeps itself open. But, to our misfortune, we have in India all the furniture of the European University except the human teacher....

A most important truth, which we are apt to forget, is that a teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. The teacher who has come to the end of his subject, who has no living traffic with his knowledge, but merely repeats his lessons to his students, can only load their minds; he cannot quicken them. Truth not only must inform but inspire. If the inspiration dies out, and the information only accumulates, then truth loses its infinity. The greater part of our learning in the schools has been waste because, for most of our teachers, their subjects are like dead specimens of once living things, with which they have a learned acquaintance, but no communication of life and love.

The educational institution, therefore, which I have in mind has primarily for its object the constant pursuit of truth, from which the imparting of truth naturally follows. It must not be a dead cage in which living minds are fed with food artificially prepared. It should be an open house, in which students and teachers are at one. They must live their complete life together, dominated by a common aspiration for truth and a need of sharing all the delights of culture. In former days the great master-craftsmen had students in their workshops where they co-operated in shaping things to perfection. That was the place where knowledge could become living - that knowledge which not only has its substance and law, but its atmosphere subtly informed by a creative personality. For intellectual knowledge also has its aspect of creative art, in which the man who explores truth expresses something which is human in him - his enthusiasm, his courage, his sacrifice, his honesty, and his skill. In merely academicals teaching we find subjects, but not the man who pursues the subjects; therefore, the vital part of education remains incomplete.

3. Why does Tagore criticize the Indian universities of his time?
4. What, according to Tagore, should a university do?
5. Why, do you think 'Modern India,' (Tagore's phrase) abandoned its traditional system of education? What have been the consequences?
6. Can you find out the equivalent of the maxim 'He who learns to read and write rides in a carriage and pair' in Bengali? Do you agree to what the maxim means?
7. Do you agree with Tagore when he says that the training we get in our schools makes us believe that we must borrow rather than produce?
8. Who is Tagore's ideal teacher?
9. What positive features of European universities does Tagore highlight in the essay?
10. Explain the following ideas in your own words:
a. Knowledge is power
b. It is better to train the muscles of our own legs than to strut upon wooden ones of foreign make
c. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame
d. Intellectual knowledge also has its aspect of creative art
e. Our educated community is not a cultured community, but a community of qualified candidates
11. What do the following words/terms mean?
a. hospitality
b. borrowed feathers
c. humiliation
d. prospective
e. initiative
f. trampled
g. recoup
h. perpetual
i. disseminates
12. Which of the following statements is true and which one false in the context of the essay? Write T or F beside the statements to indicate your answer.
a. Tagore believes that Indian universities do not collect and distribute knowledge.
b. Educational institutions in India teach their students to borrow and not produce.
c. Culture is concerned with excellence which is external.
d. Our educated community is a cultured community.
e. European universities encourage self-expression and self-sacrifice.
f. A teacher should have a living traffic with knowledge.
g. Educational institutions should constantly pursue truth.
13. What parts of speech are these words?
Inner, gradually, responsible, perversity, worst, intellectual, express, skill
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